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Xt seems advisable in this paper to consider the mak- ing of letters* I have chosen to take up that portion of the subject now, as in the papers which are to follow it will be necessary frequently to use let- tering with ornament; and in order that the descriptions may be kept simple and non-confus- ing, but slight reference will then be made to that portion of the design* Xt is hoped that the student will be able to gain a clear enough insight into let- tering in this paper to under- stand its use in those which are to follow* first, it should be understood that it is possible for the de- signer to introduce quite as much individuality into letter- ing as into anv other part of the drawing. One should, bow- ever, attain some knowledge of the forms and proportions of Roman and Gothic faces before trying to invent something new. Raving attained this knowledge, the work of application or in- vention becomes quite simple. following is a Roman alpha- bet. 6ven though it seems like drudgery to copy it de- liberately, it is valuable practice, first draw it by the aid of the guide lines or squares; next without the guide lines; then construct it into words. Creat each letter purely as an ornament; give to it a beautiful form. 6ach curve should be a line of beauty. 71 H word should be a combi- nation of such ornaments, one part nicely balancing with an- other, thus forming a complete whole. Cdbcti a letter is used in com- bination with another, its form is governed, to a great extent, not only by the letters which come next to it, but also by those which are perhaps at the other end of the word; in some cases by the letters in other words. Of quite as much im- portance as the letter is the white space which it surrounds or which occurs on either side of it. QHben using letters, the de- signer must first consider the character of letter appropriate to the work; next, the space to be devoted to same. Che letters should now be blocked in quite roughly. It is sometimes nec- essary to do this several times in order to get the letters prop- erly spaced, and to have the words come out even. Che style of lettering to be used depends largely upon the ornament with which it is to be combined and the space to be filled, and is suggested by the natural tastes, talents, or abil- ity of the designer. Che Roman letter is important in forming a groundwork on which to build, a point from which to think; it can readily be changed at the will of the designer, a few slight alterations giving it an entirely new face and one of distinct individuality, as will be noted in the word taken from a drawing by Walter Crane. Che ■ ■ ■■■■■■■■■ ■ ■■■■■■ ■■■■■ ■ A^SA HHHH MMMM®S/TT KKUVMWWYY SHAKESPEARE SHAKESPEARE ATTENTION © ATTENTION ® H primer of Ornament and Design. Cbe letters marked "H" also snow the effects produced by slight alterations. Cbe words marked "C" sbow tbe effect of spacing. In tbe first case tbe letters are put together as tbey would come been moved a little from tbe €; tbe C bas again been condensed; tbe O moved furtber from tbe I, and tbe N fro™ tbe O. It will be noticed tbat tbe O ap- pears to be smaller tban tbe otber letters, although in real- ^•5HAKe5P£AR€r A B C D E -TH6>MeRRY-WIVe5 FGHIJK OFWIND50R1N-8 PCNDeSlGNSBY- •WALTCR-CRANC LMNOP QRSTU VWXYZ abedefg h i j k 1 m n o pqrst u vw x y zl Some Lettering from a Design by Obiter Crane, also a face of old style Roman type known as Caslon* were tbe Hue set in type, and each letter is of tbe same size as tbe letters shown in tbe alpbabet above. In tbe second line it will be noticed tbat tbe H bas been placed nearer tbe C; botb Cs have been condensed enough to narrow tbe wbite space between tbem; tbe ]N" bas ity it is not It is well to make all round letters a trifle larger tban tbe square letters— merely enough larger to bave tbem appear tbe same size. rrOCe.— Cbe letter S should be a trifle smaller at tbe top tban is bere sbown^^TCbe continuation of tbis paper containing a description of Ootbic Letters will appear in tbe 'January number. H few Hrt Fotcs. h fern hrc jsrocea^^ /PH competition worthy of at- tention is that announced by the Rational Board of Crade of Cycle ]Manuf acturers who offer two first prizes of $150, each, and two second prizes of $50, each, for the best designs for the front faces of two cata- logues to be issued in connection with the Cycle Shows of 1 807, to be held in Chicago and f(cw York respectively* Che judges are to be 6dward penf icld, 6eorge (SQL peck, president Hrt Students League, and G. 6* Bartlctt, president Bartlett & Co* Details may be had from JVIr* 6. R. franks, 271 Broad- way, J^ew York, /JPCbc following designs are in demand every year, and offer splendid opportunities for the designer: covers for thanks- giving and Christmas fiarpcr's Oleekly; 6aster, Chanksgiving, and Christmas Rarpcr's Bazar; Gaster, fourth of ^uly, Cbanks- giving, and Christmas Rarper^ s Round Cable; Gaster, JVIidsutn- mer, and Christmas Scribner^s; JMidsummer and Christmas Century; Christmas Book- buyer, Good designs submitted to these publishers will find a ready sale. Che designs for Century and Scribner's should still retain the general arrange- ment and quite thesamelettering as is used in the regular issues* R* D. Russell & Son's ]Nkw publications* PICXCIR6S Of P60PL6. By Charles Dana Gibson. White vellum and Imperial 3*pan* Large folio, 12 x 18 inches* price, $5*00* € ditio n-de-IUi;ce of above, numbered and signed by ^Ir. Gibson, price, $ 1 0.00. IN VHNTCt f HIR* Drawings by TL B. OlenzeU* Large folio, 12x18 inches, on heavy coated paper* price, $5*00* OXf^RD CfiHRHCCeRS, LitbograpbeonStombyOTtURotbetistein. 50 signed copies only for Hmeriea* Large folio, 12x18 inches* price, $5*00* POSCGRS IN MINIHCaRe. Co\*r and Introduction by edtvard penfield* Y ellow buckram cover, stamped in colors* i2mo, 260 pp. price, $ 1*50. VfiS MHNtXe-Piece MIN8CReL8* By ?obn Kendrich Bangs* Illustrated by f. Berkeley Smith* Illuminated cover* price $ .75. TZ>e D6LfC CHC* By Robert Reward Russell. Illustrated by f . Berkeley Smith* Cover in Delft colors* price, $ .75. KGMBLe'S COONS* Drawings by 6. BL Kemble. Large 4to, 91-2x12 inches* Cover of buckram and 3apan vellum* price, $2*00* f HBL68 fOR CB6 CIM68* By B. OL Phillips. Illustrated by C S. Sullivant* 9 1-2x12 inches, illuminated cover* price, $ 1 *25* POSC6R CHL6N0HR fOR 1897* Designed by edward penfield* ^ive designs, 10x14 inches, printed in colors* price, $ .50. Imperial 3apan edition, numbered and signed by Mr* penfield* price, $2*00* Che above publications are for sale by all booksellers, or will be sent post-paid, to any address on receipt of price by the publishers* R. f>. RC18S6LL & SON, 33 Rose Street, fiem YORK.